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…This equipment is designed to operate with high tolerance regardless of its manufacturer. The bale weight is influenced by the type of the material, even by the state of the recyclable material at a given time, and, most importantly, by the specific pressure per square centimetre.

The bailing force is relevant depending on the section pressed upon by the bailing ram.

In my field work, too often I find deformed equipment because it was not chosen correctly for the materials to be baled.  There are also the investors, who do not understand what is going on and look at the neighbour’s equipment that “seems” to be the same but still makes heavier bales of cardboard, foil or any other material.

If that is the case, we should start with a brief classification of the balers for cardboard, foil, PET or other recyclable materials, to better understand them and the applications they are used for.

Vertical balers

  • They are designed to be used in commerce, hotels, hospitals, smaller factories, collection centre start-ups.
  • In Romania, recyclable material balers are used incorrectly by the recycling centres relying exclusively on this equipment in continuous operation.
  • Their overall size varies according to the bailing force, expressed in tons-force.
  • As the force-tons increase, the overall size of the equipment increases.
  • As the overall size of the equipment increases, so does the overall size of the bale.
  • But the following problem arises: equipment with the same bailing force produces bales of different weight from the same material. This is because the overall size of the bale is not the same and the specific pressure is not equal during the bailing ram operation.
  • The bales can weigh between 30 and 600 kg.
  • The productivity of vertical balers ranges between 100 kg/hour and 600 kg/hour
  • The electric engines are 3PH + N/380 V and usually do not exceed 7.5 kW for the largest models.
  • The name of the vertical balers is due to the vertical movement of the bailing plate.
  • Recyclable materials are loaded in the front, manually.
  • Bales are tied using various materials (tape, string, wire), always manually.

 

Horizontal balers

They are divided into the following categories:

  1. Semi-automatic horizontal balers
  2. Single long cylinder balers
  • These are created to be used by large factories, the first option in developing a recyclable material collection centre.
  • They do not vary much in overall size depending on the bailing force
  • The overall size of the bale is generally, with small variations, the same. Namely 1100 x 750 mm. Standardized for lorry loading.
  • In order to be efficient for cardboard, a minimum of 30 tons or bailing force are required. However, things are different if other materials are to be pressed. 50 or 60 tf balers are required in this case.
  • The bales can weigh between 300 and 600 kg.
  • The productivity of semi-automatic horizontal balers ranges between 1 to/hour and 2.5 to/hour
  • The electric engines are 3PH + N/380 V and range between 11 kW and 18.5 kW.
  • Recyclable materials can be fed mechanically using a machine or a conveyor belt.
  • The bailing is done automatically. They are provided with blades (knives) in the bailing chamber that automatically batch the material.
  • Only the binding is manual. Hence the name of semi-automatic.
  • The bailing ram has the ability to extend up to the front of the baler. The whole bale can be removed when it is finished.
  • The cylinder travels to the bailing end. High efficiency is thus achieved.

 

  1. Balers with short cylinders or with diagonally fitted cylinders
  • They are mostly the same as single-cylinder balers
  • However, they operate differently. Due to the short cylinders, the bale is not removed completely. This happens after the second bale is pressed.
  • This particularity decreases the weight of the bale, decreases the productivity and increases the risk of injury.
  • The main quality is the small size of this equipment.

 

  1. Automatic horizontal balers. Known as channel balers with automatic binding.
  1. Automatic balers
  • They are used to process a large quantity of recyclable materials or household waste. They can operate in 3 shifts
  • The main difference between automatic balers for cardboard, paper, foil, PET, plastic, household waste, etc. is the productivity in tonnes or cubic meters/hour.
  • The overall size of the bale can vary quite a lot. This is influenced by the type of material baled and the desired capacity.
  • In the case of channel balers, the bailing is against the other bale in the baler channel. The channel consists of 4 sides that press on the material. This is how the bales are formed.
  • The bales can weigh between 250 and 600 kg.
  • The productivity of automatic channel balers ranges between 1 to/hour and 30 to/hour
  • The electric engines are 3PH + N/380 V and range between 11 kW and 120 kW.
  • A conveyor belt should be used for feeding recyclable materials.
  • The bailing is done automatically. They are provided with blades (knives) in the bailing chamber that automatically batch the material. The binding is also automatic.
  • There are two types of binding systems. One is vertical and the other horizontal.
  • The bales are automatically removed as the production progresses.

 

  1. Mobile automatic balers
  • They have the same features as automatic channel balers. They have the same construction.
  • However, they are characterized by a smaller overall size
  • They achieve outputs of up to 10 to/hour
  • They have a special construction in order to be transported by Abrollkipper

 

  1. Double pressing automatic balers.
  • They are used to process a large quantity of recyclable materials or household waste. They can operate in 3 shifts
  • The main feature is that they can press very difficult materials to a weight of the bale of over 500 kg.
  • In the case of these balers, the bailing is done in the horizontal plane along two axes against the other bale in the baler channel. The channel consists of 4 fixed sides. Another bailing is applied in the second plane
  • The productivity of these automatic balers for recyclable materials and household waste ranges between 5 to/hour and 20 to/hour
  • The electric engines are 3PH + N/380 V and range between 30 kW and 90 kW.
  • A conveyor belt should be used for feeding recyclable materials.
  • The bailing is done automatically. They are provided with blades (knives) in the bailing chamber that automatically batch the material. The binding is also automatic.
  • The bales are automatically removed as the production progresses.

 

By and large, these are the most important types of balers. Of course, there are some other special construction features, such as closing with hydraulic flaps, pre-pressing, etc. that I have not mentioned because they are features for specific applications.

After presenting the equipment, we can state the following:

Weight of the bale

It is given by the specific pressure. Namely, the bailing force dispersed over a given surface. It is important to get a minimum load of 22 tons/lorry. Bales of recyclable materials are either smaller and lighter to fit more in the lorry, or they are bigger and heavier.

It is important to take into account the requirements of the market and the cubic capacity of the transport means. Thus, we can adjust the baler to the desired size of the bale.

Different materials result in different weights of the bales

Materials of the same kind under different quality conditions can influence the weight of the bales

The way in which recyclable materials balers are loaded influences the weight of the bale.

 

Processing capacity of a recyclable materials baler

When investing in a recyclable materials baler, you should consider the following:

  • Do you have busy periods or even peak times when the baler will be overused?
  • How will you supply this equipment? Manually or mechanically? This greatly influences the capacity of the equipment.
  • Is the material already sorted?
  • Is it worth investing in old equipment, which frequently fails?
  • How many shifts are there in 24 hours?
  • Do you report an average productivity per shift?


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